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Treating type I diabetes | Endocrine system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Since type one diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruction of the pancreas, that results in an absolute deficiency of insulin, it makes sense that the treatment of type one diabetes is to give insulin. Now, this is true, but unfortunately it’s not quite that simple. So let’s talk about treating type one diabetes. And before we get into the specifics of the treatment, let’s first briefly review some of the metabolic states in the human body. And there are two general states.

You have the absorptive state in which the body takes energy and stores it and you have the post-absorptive state, in which the body takes this stored energy from the absorptive state and utilizes it. Now this absorptive state here is driven by the hormone insulin. Whereas the post-absorptive state is driven by the hormone glucagon. Now throughout the day, the human body will typically fluctuate back and forth between this absorptive state and this post-absorptive state. So to get a better understanding of how this looks, let’s draw what I’ll call a physiologic timeline. And let’s just bring in a graph here to help describe this timeline. Now down here on this x-axis we’ll have the time of the day. And right here in the middle we’ll have noon, six in the morning, six at night, midnight, and then maybe we’ll put three AM, nine AM, three PM, and nine PM. Now as I mentioned before, the body will fluctuate back and forth between this absorptive state and post-absorptive state. So let’s see that here. And if you look closely, this fluxuation back and forth makes sense here, and around six AM when you go from this post-absorptive state while you’re sleeping, and then you eat breakfast, and then you’ll go into an absorptive state because you need to absorb the nutrients from the food in breakfast and then as your morning goes you go back into this post-absorptive state and so on and so forth.

Now these changes back and forth between these metabolic states are driven by these hormones insulin and glucagon. So on the y-axis here, let’s put in these hormone levels. So in purple here we’ll put in insulin, and then in green we’ll do glucagon. And what you can see from this is that it’s really insulin here that’s driving these changes between the post-absorptive state and the absorptive state. and glucagon also plays a role, but its level doesn’t vary nearly as much as insulin’s level throughout the day. Now since in type one diabetes the body doesn’t produce enough of this insulin, it makes sense that the goal of treatment when we’re treating type one diabetes, is to give insulin that will try and mimic the body’s normal production of insulin.

However, when we’re treating type one diabetes, just giving insulin maybe once or twice a day, as is done with most medication, doesn’t really work because the levels are changing so frequently. So then how exactly do we manage type one diabetes? To get a better understanding of this, let’s erase some of our work. Now fortunately, physicians and pharmacologists have created a very elegant method for treating type one diabetes. And this method is known as the Basal-Bolus Strategy. And in order to understand this concept a little bit better, let’s first talk briefly about insulin. Now, insulin is a peptide hormone. And as such, that means when we give it as a medication, it can’t be taken in a pill form, because the stomach and digestive system would break down the peptides or the protein of insulin into its component parts before it could be absorbed. And therefor insulin must be given as an injection. And there are many different types of insulin that are available for use in the treatment of diabetes and they are classified based on how quickly they take effect, which is know as the onset of action and how long they work for, which is known as the duration of action.

So to get a better understanding of this, let’s create another graph similar to this one that we’ll call the pharmacologic timeline. And on the x-axis here we’ll put that duration of action. And this will be an hour, so we’ll have maybe three, six, nine, 12, 15, 18 hours here. So one of the three main groups of insulins that can be given when treating type one diabetes are known as the rapid-acting insulins. And their pharmacologic time looks something like this. And these rapid-acting insulins usually take somewhere about 15 minutes to 30 minutes before the start working and their duration of action will last, you can see here, somewhere around four to six hours. Now the next major group of insulins are known as intermediate-acting insulins. And these intermediate-acting insulins, you can see by the graph, take a little bit longer before they have an onset of action, about 30 minutes to an hour, and then they last a little bit longer than the rapid-acting insulins, for somewhere between maybe eight to 12 hours, as you can see on the graph here.

Now the last major category of insulin are known as the long-acting insulins. And as you can see on this graph, the long-acting insulins take even longer to take action, somewhere in the order of maybe one to four hours, and their peek action is not quite as intense as this rapid or intermediate-acting insulins, and their duration of action is much longer. Depending on the type of long-acting insulin, it can be somewhere between 12 and 24 hours. So now that we have a little bit better understanding of the different types of insulin and why it needs to be injected instead of taken as a pill, let’s go back to this physiologic timeline here.

And let’s specifically look at this insulin level Now you notice that the insulin level never goes all the way down to zero. There’s always this baseline level here. And we’ll call this the basal level. And then intermediately there are these peaks, which we’ll call boluses. And these boluses occur after we eat and they’re what drive the transition from that post-absorptive state to the absorptive state, about three times a day, depending on how often you eat. Now hopefully what you can see by this is that if we transpose a couple of these graphs from the pharmacologic timeline onto the physiologic timeline, we can use injectable insulin to mimic this physiologic timeline in order to treat type one diabetes.

So for these boluses, these kind of rapid peaks, you’ll notice that they look somewhat like the rapid-acting insulin here. So let’s put that on there. And then this basal level here, this constant level, you can create with a long-acting insulin. So we’ll put that on the graph. Now hopefully what you can see by this, and it’s starting to get a little crowded here so I’ll highlight it, is that by using this Basal-Bolus Strategy someone with type one diabetes can kind of mimic the natural levels of insulin that the pancreas should be producing.

And this is why this Basal-Bolus Strategy of treating type one diabetes is very efficient. Because it mimics what the body would do if the pancreas was working properly. So an overview of the Basal-Bolus Strategy is that usually once or twice a day, depending on the type of long-acting insulin, say in the morning and then again at night, someone with type one diabetes will take a dose of insulin, of this long acting insulin that will serve as this basal rate. And then at meal time they’ll take an additional dose of the rapid-acting insulin to cover these boluses to help the body transition from the post-absorptive here to the absorptive state, to absorb the energy in the meal they just ate. Now it’s important to know that this graph demonstrates the principle of the Basal-Bolus Strategy, but it is somewhat of an oversimplification and that proper insulin management requires one to be very diligent with their insulin dosing and administration.

This is especially important in regards to the bolus doses here. And this is because the amount of insulin that someone’s gonna need to take with each bolus dose will vary depending on what their blood sugar is at that time as well as on how many carbohydrates they’re planning on eating. So in order to properly manage their insulin regiment, individuals with type one diabetes must regularly check their blood sugar levels and adjust their insulin dosing accordingly. Now type one diabetes can be a very serious and potentially even lethal disease.

However, with diligent adherence to the Basal-Bolus Strategy and regular appointments with one’s physician in order to adjust the insulin dosing as well as monitor for complications, someone diagnosed with type one diabetes can still live a very healthy and long life.


Using Sliding Scale to Determine Insulin Dose



Using Your Sliding Scale

A sliding scale is what you will use to determine how much insulin you need to give to correct an elevated blood sugar and/or for food. There are two parts. Correction factor and insulin to carb ratio.

In our example, the correction factor is half a unit will lower the blood sugar 25 points, and the insulin to carb ratio is half a unit will cover 10 grams of carbs. Here, we’re just looking at the insulin to carb ratio. You can see if I eat 60 grams of carbs at a meal, I’ll need three units of insulin to cover it.

Before you eat, you need to check your blood sugar. Let’s say, my blood sugar is 220. Look on the scale to find 220.

To help lower my blood sugar before I eat, I’ll need to give two units. So, in total, before this meal, I’ll give five units of insulin — two units of insulin for correction and three units of insulin to cover the carbs..

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SHOCKING TRICK For Diabetes Cure | Green Smoothie Juice For Diabetes #EveryDayTips

Are you suffering with diabetes from long time …..you might use many medicines and treatments if you want to cure diabetes by simple and natural ways …then watch this full video diabetes is an increasingly common condition

according to the American Diabetes Association approximately million new cases are diagnosed every year in u.s.

diabetes can be challenging to control on many natural remedies or help to lower blood sugars living with diabetes can be very difficult and could be a little scary drinking green juices and eating a healthy diet can change that

here is a healthy green smoothie for this we need carrots spinach ginger cook embark lemon and coriander carrot carrot third root vegetables known for their vibrant color and their ability to really benefit the vision carrots are powerhouses of nutrition carrot for frequently orange but can also be found in white purple and red carrots are rich in vitamin A vitamin K and vitamin C and potassium and manganese complex vitamin B with folate phosphorus and vitamin E in smaller quantities carrots are very high in

sugar they are also rich in healthy fiber along with vitamins minerals and antioxidants carrot consumption would not hurt you even if you are a diabetic apples are delicious nutrition convenient to eat well typically contain less sugar and more fiber they are particularly beneficial for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes

they also have high antioxidant levels and are an excellent source of vitamin C they contain about 20 grams of carbohydrates to provide you with all the energy and most of it comes from natural sugars also Nappers have a g1 rating of 39 which means that they are a low glycemic food spinach spinach is rich in vitamins minerals and photo chemicals spinach possesses al index which means eating

it will help support healthy unstable blood glucose levels spinach is exceptionally low in calories one cup of raw spinach contains only seven calories the fact that spirit contains so few calories is a major benefit of persons with diabetes it improves your blood glucose levels as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol glioma control a study suggested the ginger improve long-term blood sugar control for people with type 2 diabetes ginger is rich in ginger all the major active component of ginger resorbs can increase uptake of glucose into muscle cells without using insulin and helps in the management of high blood sugar levels it is also worth noting that ginger has a very low glycemic index low GI foods break down slowly to form glucose and therefore do not trigger a spike in blood sugar levels as high g1 foods do koo kumba kokoomus are low in carbohydrates and a source of fiber they fit easily into a diabetes meal plan the area recommends people with type 2 diabetes consume your nutritious high-fiber diet including 3 to 5 servings of vegetables a day fiber has many health benefits including providing a sense of fullness curbing appetite and helping the blood sugar control many low carbohydrate vegetables including cucumbers do not worsen blood sugar levels and can be eaten liberally in diabetic diet lemon lemon is rich in nutrients having high levels of vitamin c tianmen calcium and phosphorus lemon is good for diabetics and has many other health benefices it is good for diabetics as a means of controlling blood sugar levels lemon juice is good for diabetics mainly because of its high concentration of vitamin C

vitamin C is a powerful antioxidants that helps boost the body’s immune system and has a beneficial effect on heart health coriander coriander reduces the glucose levels in the blood it also maintained the insulin activity coriander seed is effective in controlling the insulin release from bitter cell in cankerous this regulates the proper assimilation and absorption of sugar and this results in drop in the sugar level in the blood now let us start the preparation take a blender jar add spinach street system bird pieces carrot pieces apple pieces coriander some ginger pieces add some lemon juice now pour some water and blend it well low-calorie juice is ready – this juice along with the healthy large salad it will lower your blood sugar levels tremendously by taking this use regularly you can control your blood sugar levels.


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15 REASONS WHY SWEET POTATOES ARE PERFECT FOR DIABETICS

Sweet potatoes are a particular type of potatoes from the same order as regular ones with the difference that they are part of different species and a different family. You can find sweet potatoes in a variety of colors. The most frequently found are the ones with white-cream and yellow-orange color. There are also sweet potatoes with purple flesh and they are extremely abundant in antioxidants. The most important thing about them is that they have excellent nutritional values. 15 Nutritious Facts: 1. Sweet potatoes are an excellent choice for diabetics since they contain natural sugars that decrease and stabilize the insulin resistance in diabetics.

They are also good for the regulation of the sugar levels. 2. Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fibers which are good for digestion. They also prevent colon cancer and help with constipation. 3. Sweet potatoes contain carotenoids which help in producing Vitamin A. This vitamin regenerates the respiratory system. So, people with respiratory problems, especially smokers should consume sweet potatoes more often. 4. Vitamin D is also contained in sweet potatoes.

This vitamin is good for the teeth, heart, skin, bones, energy levels as well as for the normal function of the thyroid gland. 5. In general there can be an improvement of the heart functioning with the help of the potassium. This vitamin lowers the impact of the sodium, regulates blood pressure and makes a balance of the electrolytes. The sweet potato has Vitamin B6 that prevents heart attacks, strokes and degenerative diseases. 6. The potassium in the sweet potatoes is good for healthy tissues and muscles. It also helps in reducing swelling and cramps, provides with energy and relaxes the muscles. It also regulates heartbeats and nerve signals. 7. Beta –carotene in the sweet potato acts like an anti –oxidant. It helps with arthritis, gout and asthma, protects against lung and breast cancer and it also reduces aging effects. 8. Since sweet potatoes are rich in folic acid, they are a great source of folic for healthy fetal development. Pregnant women should consume more sweet potatoes.

  1. The potassium content in potatoes increases the flow of oxygen, regulates the balance of the body’s water and normalizes the heartbeats. The magnesium content on the other hand acts as an anti-stress agent. 10. Vitamin C is crucial for the entire body’s function and sweet potatoes have abundance of it. 11. Sweet potatoes are also rich in iron that has a crucial role in the producing of red and white blood cells. That’s why they help against anemia. 12. Did you know that you can use the water from the boiled potatoes for treating your skin? Especially for irritation of the skin, cleaning the pores and absorbing impurities. The Vitamin C contained in the sweet potato will produce collagen while the vitamin E will help in the improvement of the complexion of the skin.

Anthocyanins will help you in removing wrinkles and purifying the dark circles around the eyes. 13. If you suffer from painful pre-menstrual symptoms, the iron and manganese in sweet potatoes will soothe them. 14.Having problems with damaged hair and dandruff? The beta-carotene will prevent them and it will also stimulate hair growth. 15. Since sweet potatoes have an abundance of the vitamins vital for the enzyme, protein and carbohydrate metabolism you should consume them more often. However, you need to consult a doctor if you have ever had oxalate urinary tract stones: Please subscribe to our channel Thank you:


Online post on funding stop for diabetes blood strip tests wrong

A post being shared on Facebook recently concerning diabetics highlights the fact that you shouldn’t believe everything you read online. Hania Douglas explains. Don’t believe everything you see on the internet, warns online expert Karaitiana Taiuru. The issue arose after a Facebook post concerning a cut in govt funding for diabetic blood test strips. In an email to Te Karere, Diabetes NZ says that they are not aware of any recent changes, and that the current system will continue. However, they did share concerns over the fact that the message has spread to people whose lives depend on these resources.

But how do you identify a fake? And if a post on health issues concerns you, wait till you hear it from the horse’s mouth, or at least a doctor’s.


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